At this point we have learned how to write digital values to the GPIO pins, we have learned to simulate analog out using PWM, and we have learned how to do digital reads from the pins. If you are like me and came from the Arduino world, then you will likely be asking, “Now what about analog reads”. The arduino has pins A0-A5 that make quick and easy work of reading analog values from things like photometers, sensors and various other circuit elements.
The bottom line is, unfortunately, there are no analogous capabilities on the Raspberry Pi. There is no way to directly read analog voltages.
Some suggest incorporating various analog to digital converter chips into your circuits requiring analog reads. For me, my preferred solution is the simply add an Arduino to the Raspberry Pi circuit. There are many very small form factor versions of the Arduino. For example, the nano is very small, and there are some examples that are even smaller. Some of these small implementations can be found for under $10.
If you take this approach, then all you have to do is learn how to communicate between the Raspberry Pi and Arduino either over USB or over ethernet. I show you how to do both of these things in the Lesson series on this WEB site “Using Python with Arduino”. This shows how to communicate between python and arduino using the USB, using Ethernet, or using the Xbee radios. Since python runs on the Raspberry Pi, all the techniques taught in those lessons can be applied to the raspberry pi.
In our high altitude balloon instrumentation package, we actually run a raspberry pi that is controlling two arduino nano microcontrollers. The one arduino is controlling the 9-axis IMU, and the other arduino is running GPS, Temperature, Pressure, and other sensors. The raspberry pi and Arduinos communicate over a small onboard Ethernet switch. The system communicates back to the ground via 1 watt ubiquity bullet radios.
So, the Raspberry Pi should not be viewed as a replacement for the Arduino, it should be viewed as a complementary device that can work nicely alongside the Arduino.
In this lesson we are ready to bring together a lot of what we learned in earlier lessons. We will create dimable LEDs which will respond to two buttons. If one is pressed the LED will gradually grow dimmer. If the other is pressed, the LED will gradually grow brighter. This will require us to use our skills in using GPIO inputs, pullup resistors, GPIO outputs, and PWM.
For convenience we will use the same circuit we used in LESSON 30, shown below. Also, if you want to follow along with these lessons, you can buy the gear you need HERE.
The objective of this circuit is that we want the LEDs to grow brighter each time the right button is pushed, and we want them to grow dimmer each time to left button is pushed.
The video above steps through and explains this code.
fromtimeimportsleep# Library will let us put in delays
importRPi.GPIO asGPIO# Import the RPi Library for GPIO pin control
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BOARD)# We want to use the physical pin number scheme
button1=16# Give intuitive names to our pins
GPIO.setup(button1,GPIO.IN,pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP)# Button 1 is an input, and activate pullup resisrot
GPIO.setup(button2,GPIO.IN,pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP)# Button 2 is an input, and activate pullup resistor
GPIO.setup(LED1,GPIO.OUT)# LED1 will be an output pin
GPIO.setup(LED2,GPIO.OUT)# LED2 will be an output pin
pwm1=GPIO.PWM(LED1,1000)# We need to activate PWM on LED1 so we can dim, use 1000 Hz
pwm2=GPIO.PWM(LED2,1000)# We need to activate PWM on LED2 so we can dim, use 1000 Hz
pwm1.start(0)# Start PWM at 0% duty cycle (off)
pwm2.start(0)# Start PWM at 0% duty cycle (off)
bright=1# Set initial brightness to 1%
while(1):# Loop Forever
ifGPIO.input(button1)==0:#If left button is pressed
print"Button 1 was Pressed"# Notify User
bright=bright/2.# Set brightness to half
pwm1.ChangeDutyCycle(bright)# Apply new brightness
pwm2.ChangeDutyCycle(bright)# Apply new brightness
sleep(.25)# Briefly Pause
print"New Brightness is: ",bright# Notify User of Brightness
ifGPIO.input(button2)==0:# If button 2 is pressed
print"Button 2 was Pressed"# Notify User
bright=bright*2# Double Brightness
ifbright>100:# Keep Brightness at or below 100%
print"You are at Full Bright"
pwm1.ChangeDutyCycle(bright)# Apply new brightness
pwm2.ChangeDutyCycle(bright)# Apply new brightness
print"New Brightness is: ",bright#Notify User of Brightness
In this lesson we will show how you can control LED’s from push buttons. In order to get started, you will want to expand the circuit we built in LESSON 29 to include two LEDs. The schematic below shows how you will want to hook things up (Also, remember you can see the Raspberry Pi pinout in LESSON 25). Also, as we have mentioned before, if you want to follow along with us in these lessons you can get a kit that has all the gear you need HERE.
In the video lesson, we take you through the code step-by-step. We use the techniques learned in LESSON 29 to detect if a button has been pushed. We introduce two new variables, BS1 and BS2, so indicate the state of the LED’s. A BS1=False means the LED1 is off. A BS1=True means the LED is on. This concept allows us to determine whether we should turn the LED on or off when the button is pushed. Basically, we want to put it in the opposite state when a button is pushed. The code is below. The video shows how it works.
fromtimeimportsleep# Import sleep Library
importRPi.GPIO asGPIO# Import GPIO Library
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BOARD)# Use Physical Pin Numbering Scheme
button1=16# Button 1 is connected to physical pin 16
button2=12# Button 2 is connected to physical pin 12
LED1=22# LED 1 is connected to physical pin 22
LED2=18# LED 2 is connected to physical pin 18
GPIO.setup(button1,GPIO.IN,pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP)# Make button1 an input, Activate Pull UP Resistor
GPIO.setup(button2,GPIO.IN,pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP)# Make button 2 an input, Activate Pull Up Resistor
GPIO.setup(LED1,GPIO.OUT,)# Make LED 1 an Output
GPIO.setup(LED2,GPIO.OUT)# Make LED 2 an Output
BS1=False# Set Flag BS1 to indicate LED is initially off
BS2=False# Set Flag BS2 to indicate LED is initially off
while(1):# Create an infinite Loop
ifGPIO.input(button1)==0:# Look for button 1 press
print"Button 1 Was Pressed:"
ifBS1==False:# If the LED is off
GPIO.output(LED1,True)# turn it on
BS1=True# Set Flag to show LED1 is now On
else:# If the LED is on
GPIO.output(LED1,False)# Turn LED off
BS1=False# Set Flag to show LED1 is now Off
ifGPIO.input(button2)==0:#Repeat above for LED 2 and button 2
We are now ready to learn how to “read” values from the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins. In order to demonstrate this, we will show a simple example using buttons. If you ordered the Raspberry Pi kit we recommend, you already have everything you need, or you can pick your kit up HERE. To start with, you need to put together a simple circuit that connects two push buttons to your Raspberry Pi. Connect according to this schematic.
Note that one leg of each button is connected to the ground rail on the breadboard, that is connected to the Pi ground at physical pin 6. Then we connect the left leg of the left button to physical pin 16, and the left leg of the right button to physical pin 12.
In order to read the state of these buttons, that is, whether they are being pressed or not, we need to write a python program. To begin with we must import GPIO library and specify that we want to
fromtimeimportsleep# Import time library
importRPi.GPIO asGPIO# Import RPi Library
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BOARD)# Specify We Want to reference Physical pins
Now we are ready to set the pin modes on the pins we are using. We are using pins 12 and 16. We will set up variables so that we can reference the pins by descriptive variables.
button1=16# Descriptive Variable for pin 16
button2=12# Descriptive Variable for pin 12
GPIO.setup(button1,GPIO.IN,pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP)# Set button1 as input and Activate pull up resistor
GPIO.setup(button2,GPIO.IN,pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP)# Set button2 as input and Activate pull up resisor
Note in our GPIO.setup commands, we are not just defining the pins as inputs, we are also activating pullup resistors with
With this command, the raspberry pi places a pullup resistor between the designated pin and the 3.3 V rail. This means that if we simply read the pin, we will read a “1”, “True”, or “High”, since the pin will see the rail through the pullup resistor. If we connect the pin to ground by pressing a button or switch, the pin will then read a “0”, “False” or “Low” because it will be a straight connection to ground, and as current flows through the pullup resistor, the 3.3 Volts will drop across the pullup resistor. Hence, the pin sees 0 volts.
The result is that with the pullup resistor activated, the pin will always report a “1” until something connects the pin to ground, and then it will read a “0”. This configuration should work for most things, but if you are getting unpredictable results which can result from electrical noise, then try using external pullup resistors.
Now we are ready to read the values from the pins.
while(1):# Create an infinite loop
ifGPIO.input(button1)==0:# button1 will report 0 if it is pressed
print"Button 1 Pressed"
ifGPIO.input(button2)==0:# button 2 will report 0 if it is presses
print"Button 2 Pressed"
Notice that we read from the pin using the GPIO.input command. Also note that for reliable results you need to usually put a small delay in your code. This will help debounce the button, and will also give more stable results.
In this lesson we will show you how to precisely control a Servo using the Raspberry Pi. First, for the small servo I am using, I have verified that it is safe to drive from the 5 volt pin (physical pin 2) on the Raspberry Pi. It is possible to damage your Raspberry Pi by drawing too much current out of a pin. So, if you are not sure about the current requirements of your Servo, it is best to power it from a 5 Volt source other than a Raspberry Pi pin. You can still control it from the Raspberry Pi if you use a common ground, but just get the power (red wire) from an external source. For my small servo, I can safely power it from Raspberry Pi physical pin 2.
The second point is that to control the servo, you have to use Pulse Width Modulation. So, I STRONGLY recommend that you go through LESSON 27 if you have not already. Lesson 27 shows you how to use PWM on the GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi. If you are up to speed on PWM, this lesson will go a lot easier.
So, with that out of the way, we are ready to hook up our servo. For my servo, the ground wire is Black, the Red wire is 5 volt, and the yellow wire is the control line. If you are using a different servo, you will need to read the instructions to see what the color code is for your three wires, but it is likely similar to mine. The sketch below shows how you should hook the servo up. Notice I have the 5V hooked to the Pi physical pin 2, the servo ground hooked to the Pi physical pin 9, and the servo control line hooked to the Pi physical pin 11.
Now with the Servo hooked up, we are ready to try and control it. For this example, we will work in the Python shell. To enter the python shell, open a Terminal window, and at the command prompt type:
It is important to include sudo, as the Raspberry Pi only allows access to the GPIO pins to the superuser. Hence, you need to enter the python shell as a superuser. When you type the command above, you should be moved into the Python shell, and should see the python shell prompt of >>>.
We are now ready to control the servo. We must first import the RPi library. These first steps should be familiar if you did LESSON 27.
>>>import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
Now we need to tell the Pi what pin numbering scheme we want to use. I like to use the physical pin numbers (See LESSON 25 for a diagram). So, we need to issue the command:
Now we need to tell the Pi that physical pin 11 will be an output pin:
The servos position is controlled by the pulsewidth of a 50 Hz PWM signal. Hence, we need to turn the PWM sequence on at 50 Hz. Note that for a 50 Hz signal, the Period of the signal is 1/50=.02 seconds, or 20 milliseconds. Keep this Period in mind as we will come back to it later. We start by creating a PWM object on Pin 11 with a 50 Hz signal with the command:
We can now start the pwm sequence by giving a command to specify the DutyCycle of the signal. Before we do this, we need to talk a little bit about how servos work. A typical servo wants to see a frequency of 50 Hz on the control line. The position it moves to depends on the pulse width of the signal. Most servos behave roughly as such, but you will need to tweak these numbers for your particular servo. Typically, the servo will go to the full left position when it sees a pulse width of 1 millisecond, it will go the middle position when it sees a pulse width of 1.5 millisecond, and it will go to the full right position when it sees a pulse width of 2 millisecond. Note however, that on the Raspberry Pi we do not specify a pulse width, but we specify a DutyCycle. So, we can use the following relationship:
Remember that Period = 1/frequency, so:
DutyCycle = PulseWidth/(1/frequency) = PulseWidth * frequency
The PulseWidth that will give us a full left position is 1 milllisecond. We now calculate the applied DutyCycle to give us the desired position:
So, for a 50 Hz signal, if we set the DutyCycle to 5, then we should see the servo move to the full left position. Similarly, if we set DutyCycle to 7.5, we should get the middle position, and if we set it to 10 we should be in the full right position. You can get all the intermediate positions by linearly scaling between 5 and 10. Note that these values will vary between brands, and between individual servos, so play around with your servo to get it calibrated. We are now ready to apply a command to position the servo. If we want the servo in the full left position, we should set the DutyCycle to 5%. We do that with the command:
This will start the PWM signal, and will set it at 5%. Remember, we already specified the 50 Hz signal when we created the pwm object in our earlier commands. Now if we want to change the position, we can change the DutyCycle. For example, if we want to go to the middle position, we want a DutyCycle of 7.5, which we can get with the command:
Now if we want the full right position, we want a duty cycle of 10, which we would get with the command:
Remember, it is not DutyCycle that actually controls servo position, it is PulseWidth. We are creating DutyCycles to give us the desired PulseWidth.
Now, play around with your particular servo and then find the specific DutyCycles that lead to full left and full right positions. For my servo, I find that full left is at DutyCycle=2, and full right is at DutyCycle=12. With these values, I can create a linear equation that will give me any angle I want between 0 and 180. This will make the Raspberry Pi behave much more like the simple and intuitive operation of the Arduino.
To do the linear equation I need two points. Well, I know that for a desired angle of 0, I should apply a DutyCycle of 2. This would be the point (0,2). Now I also know that for a desired angle of 180, I should apply a DutyCycle of 12. This would be the point (180,12). We now have two points and can calculate the equation of the line. (Remember, play with your servo . . . your numbers might be slightly different than mine, but the methodology below will work if you use your two points)
Remember slope of a line will be:
m=(y2-y1)/(x2-x1)=(12-2)/180-0)=10/180 = 1/18
We can now get the equation of the line using the point slope formula.
y = 1/18*x + 2
Putting in our actual variables, we get
DutyCycle = 1/18* (DesiredAngle) + 2
Now to change to that position, we simply use the command:
I hope this makes sense. Watch the video as I step you through it carefully. If the writeup above does not make sense, hopefully the video will clear things up.
If you remember our Arduino Lessons, you will recall that we could write analog voltages to the output pins with the ~ beside them. The truth is, though, we were not really writing analog voltages, we were just simulating analog voltages using pulse width modulation (PWM). The arduino was able to put out 5 volts. Hence, if you want to simulate a 2.5 volt signal, you could turn the pin on and off every quickly, timing things such that the pin was on half the time and off half the time. Similarly, if you wanted to simulate a 1 volt analog out, you would time things so that the 5 volt signal was on 20% of the time. For many applications, such as controlling LED brightness, this approach works very well. Arduino made it easy and transparent to the user to generate these analog-like output voltages using the analogWrite command.
This capability is also available on the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins. However, the implementation requires you to think in terms of a signal with a frequency and a duty cycle. Consider a signal with a frequency of 100 Hz. This signal would have a Period of 10 milliseconds. In other words. the signal repeats itself every 10 milliseconds. If the signal had a duty cycle of 100%, it would be “High” 100% of the time, and “Low” 0% of the time. If it had a duty cycle of 50% it would be high 50% of the time (.5X10 milliseconds= 5 milliseconds) and low 50% of the time (.5X10 milliseconds = 5 milliseconds). So, it would be high 5 milliseconds, and low 5 milliseconds for a total period of 10 milliseconds, which as we expect, if a frequency of 100 Hz. (Note that the Period of a signal = 1/frequency, and frequency = 1/Period)
Note on the Raspberry Pi, the output voltage is 3.3 volts as opposed to the 5 volt output on the Arduino. Hence, the Raspberry Pi can only simulate analog voltages between 0 and 3.3 volts. For this example, we will be playing with the following circuit again. Note we are using physical pin 9 as the ground and physical pin 11 as the power pin. See Lesson 25 below for a diagram of pin numbers on the Raspberry Pi.
OK, enough background, lets start playing with some code. On examples like this, I think it is easiest to operate from the Python Shell, as this allows us to observe the effects of our commands one at a time. To enter the Python Shell, type sudo python at the linux command line in a terminal window. The sudo is important as it allows you to enter the python shell as a superuser. Access to the GPIO pins requires superuser privileges. Also, remember that to exit the python shell and return to the Linux command prompt you enter Ctrl-d. So, type in sudo python to go to the python shell. You should see the >>> prompt indicating you are not in the python shell. The first thing you need to do is import the RPi library:
>>> import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
Now tell the Raspberry Pi which pin number scheme you want to use (See Lesson 25). I prefer to use the physical pin numbering system as I find it easier to remember. To use the physical pen numbering system, you would enter this command:
Note, if you prefer the BCM system, replace BOARD with BCM in the command above.
Now we need to tell the Pi that physical pin 11 will be an output. We can do that will the command:
At this point we could write the pin high or low, but our objective here is to use PWM, so we need to do a few more things. First, we need to create a PWM object. I will call my object my_pwm. We will need to pass the parameters of the physical pin we want to use, and the frequency. I like to use 100 Hz, which gives us a period of 10 msec. The command we need for this is:
Remember capitalization needs to be EXACT! Now to start the pwm we need to decide what DutyCyle we want. Remember, the DutyCycle is the percentage of the period that the signal will be high. If we wanted to approximate a 1.6 volt signal, we would note that 1.6 is about half of the 3.3 coming out of the Pi, so we would want a 50% duty cycle. The command for this would be:
When you type this command you should see the LED come on, if you have connected things correctly. It should be at about half brightness.
Now if you would like to change the brightness, just change the Duty Cycle. For example, if you wanted the LED very dim, you might set a 1% duty cycle. You could do this with the command:
Similarly, if you wanted full brightness, you would want a 100% duty cycle, which you could get with the command:
Again, please remember that the capitalization has to be exact. Now you can get any brightness you want by changing the duty cycle to anything between 0 and 100, inclusive.
Note you can also change the frequency of the PWM signal. Lets say you wanted a frequency of 1000 Hz. We could do this with the command:
Note that by doing this there is no perceptible change in LED brightness because you have not changed the relative on and off time of the signal. You are just going faster, but not impacting the fractional time the signal is on and off, hence the LED brightness does not change.
While in these examples we have done things from the control line, you can write python programs that will run the commands for you. For example, write a program that asks the user how bright he wants the LED, between 0 and 100, and then set it to that brightness by adjusting the Duty Cycle, as we did in the example above. Play around with different pins and different frequencies and values. Become familiar with these commands.
Now, finally, if you want to turn pwm off, you would use the command:
Also, remember that you should always clean up after yourself, so at the bottom of your program, or before you exit the shell, always release your pins and clean up using the command:
Making The World a Better Place One High Tech Project at a Time. Enjoy!