Tag Archives: Pressure

Python with Arduino LESSON 17: Sending and Receiving Data Over Ethernet

Arduino Ethernet
This circuit contains an Arduino Nano and Pressure Sensor Communicating over Ethernet

In LESSON 16 we showed a simple Client Server model that allows us to send strings between Python running on a PC and the arduino over Ethernet. That lesson simply passed strings back and forth to show a very basic Server on Arduino, and Python acting as the Client. In this lesson we show a more practical example, with the Arduino connected to an Adafruit BMP180 Pressure Sensor. In order to complete this lesson, you will need an Arduino, an Ethernet Shield, and the Pressure Sensor. If you do not have this particular pressure sensor, you can probably follow along in the lesson using whatever sensor you have that is of interest. The video will take you through the tutorial step-by-step, and then the code we developed is shown below.

The key issue in getting this project to work is to get your mac address and IP address from your router or network. If you are at school, simply speak to your network administrator, and he will help you get an IP address for your arduino. If you are at home, you will need to connect to your router from a browser, and configure it to assign an IP address and agree on a mac address for your arduino. Some arduino Ethernet shields have a sticker with a mac address. If your Ethernet shield has a sticker with mac address, use that one. If it does not, you will need to come up with a unique mac address. There are thousands of possible routers and networks out there, so I can not help you with that part. But if you look in the router documentation, you should be able to get the IP address and mac address worked out. The arduino itself does not have a hard wired mac address, but you set the mac address in the arduino software, and the IP address as well. The key thing is that the mac address is unique on your network, and the router and arduino agree on the IP address and mac address. If you have a clearer way to explain this, please leave a comment below.

This is the server side software to run on the arduino. Again, you should use a suitable IP address and mac address for your network. Do not think you can just copy the ones I use in the code below.

Once you have this on your arduino, and the arduino connected to the internet via an Ethernet cable, you can test by opening a command line in Windows. Then ping the address you have assigned to the Arduino. If it pings correctly and you get a reply, you are ready to develop the Python code. The Python will be the client. It will send the requests to the Arduino, and the Arduino will respond with data. Since our circuit can measure pressure or temperature, you can request either of those. When the arduino receives a request for temperature, it will go out, make the temperature measurement and then return the data to Python. Similarly, if you request Pressure the arduino will read the request, will make the Pressure measurement, and then return pressure reading to the client (Python).

 This python code will request Temperature, will then read the response, and then will print the data. It then requests Pressure, reads the response, and then prints it. If you look at our earlier lessons you can see graphical techniques to visually present the data. The hard part is getting the data passed back and forth, which we show how to do in this lesson.

Arduino LESSON 21: Log Sensor Data to an SD Card

In most of our work so far, we have just watched our data go by on the Serial Monitor. In most cases, you will want to have some means to store your data. The easiest way to do this is to use a simple SD card reader. For this example, we use the Virtuabotix SD Card Reader.

SD Card Reader
Arduino connected to a BMP180 pressure sensor and an SD Card Reader

In this tutorial, we will need to have some sensor hooked up so we will have some data to store. We will be using the BMP 180 Pressuer and Temperature sensor from adafruit.  We have a complete tutorial on this sensor  HERE.  You will need to go to that lesson and get the sensor hooked up, the library installed, and the software done. All this is explained step-by-step in the LESSON.

The BMP180 is connected to the arduino as follows:

Connecting Up the BMP180 Pressure and Temperature Sensor
BMP180 Pin Arduino Pin
Vin 5V
GND GND
SCL A5
SDA A4

Once you have the BMP180 connected, test and make sure your code is working, and you are getting good pressure and temperature readings. Once that is working, you are ready to connect your SD card Reader/Writer.

The SD card reader should be connected as follows:

Connecting the SD Card Reader
Sd Card Reader Pin Arduino Pin Details
GND GND Common Ground
3.3 V – (NOT USED)
+5 5V Power
CS 4 Chip Select
MOSI 11 SPI Data
SCK 13 Clock
MISO 12 SPI Data
GND GND Common Ground

In the video we will show step-by-step how to develop the software. You should follow along in the video, and not copy and paste the code below. You will never learn to program if you do not write your own code. The code below is to help you in case you get stuck.

If you have the BMP180 and the SD card connected correctly,  this should create a file called PTData.txt on the card, and write comma delimited data to the file. Note that if the file does not exist on the card, the command:

will create the file. If the file already exists, this command will append data to the existing file. If you want to start with a clean new data set, erase the old PTData file.

When you run the program, you end up with a PTData.txt file on the SD card. When you have finished logging your data, you can pop the card out, put it into your PC, and then import the data into excel. You should now be able to plot, graph or analyze the data using all the powerful features of Excel.

Python with Arduino LESSON 13: Calculating Height from Pressure measurements from BMP180 Pressure Sensor.

It is time to bring together a lot of things we have learned in our earlier lessons to create a Height-O-Meter, which will plot how high our BMP180 pressure sensor is above the floor. For this lesson we make simplifying assumption of constant temperature. When we use the sensor for our space probe or other high altitude experiments we will need to derive the equation again to take into account changing temperature. We went through the math of calculating height from changing pressure in LESSON 12.

In this lesson, we start with the software we developed in LESSON 11 for measuring, streaming, and plotting pressure and temperature data from the BMP180 sensor.

Remember, we connect the sensor to the Arduino as follows:

Connecting Up the BMP180 Pressure and Temperature Sensor
BMP180 Pin Arduino Pin
Vin 5V
GND GND
SCL A5
SDA A4

 

The software we are using on the arduino side is shown below, from LESSON 11.

We modify the Python code from LESSON 11 as explained in the video above to get this code for the Python side.

 Please go through video for complete description of this software. Remember this is only valid for small changes in height over which temperature is constant.

Python with Arduino LESSON 11: Plotting and Graphing Live Data from Arduino with Matplotlib

We now have all the pieces put together to allow us to plot live data from the Arduino. If you have kept up with the earlier lessons, you will now have everything you need. If you have not done the earlier lessons, make sure you have python 2.7, vPython and pySerial installed from Python with Arduino LESSON 2.  Make sure you have installed matplotlib (Python with Arduino LESSON 7), and install drawnow (Python with Arduino LESSON 10). Also, you need to build the BMP180 circuit and get the arduino programmed up as explained in Python with Arduino LESSON 9. With this business taken care of, you are now ready to start plotting live data.

Pressure Data
This chart shows live pressure and temperature data being plotted in real time

We are using the Adafruit BMP180 pressure sensor.  We showed how to hook it up and program it in LESSON 9. As a reminder, we are using this code for the arduino. LESSON 9 explained in detail how the code works.

The video in this lesson above explains step-by-step how to develop the code on the Python side, and how matplotlib and drawnow work together to make live graphs and plots of data streaming from the arduino in real time. The code below is what we developed in the video. Do not simply cut and paste this code, but make sure that you understand it so you are able to create your own live graphing programs from scratch. If you are in my class, you will be required to be able to develop live graphing code like this from scratch, so don’t take a shortcut and copy and paste.

You should be seeing data like the graph on the top of this lesson. You will probably need to adjust your y-axis scale parameters in Python to ensure the scale is suitable for the data you are taking. If your chart is blank, likely your y-scales are not right for your data measurements.

Python with Arduino LESSON 9: Measuring Pressure and Temperature with the BMP180 Sensor

One of our goals with this series of lessons is to learn how to plot live data in Python. To do that, we need some interesting streaming data from the Arduino. In this lesson we will provide a live stream of temperature and pressure data. We will hook up the circuit, program the arduino, and stream the temperature and pressure data over the serial port. Then in the next lesson, we will read the data stream into Python, and provide a live plot of the incoming data. We will be using the Adafruit BMP180 Pressure Sensor.

BMP180
This is the most excellent BMP180 Pressure Sensor from adafruit.

This is a really simple sensor to get set up. To connect it up, use the following connections:

Connecting Up the BMP180 Pressure and Temperature Sensor
BMP180 Pin Arduino Pin
Vin 5V
GND GND
SCL A5
SDA A4

 

With the circuit hooked up, you are ready to start coding. The first thing you will need to do is to download and install the adafruit library for this component. I prefer the API V1 version of the library, so we will download that one. Do not worry that the documentation lists a different part number. This is an upgraded version of the sensor, and the documentation still references the old part number. You can download the library for this part here:

https://learn.adafruit.com/bmp085/using-the-bmp085

Click the “Download the Adafruit_BMP085 Arduino Library” large green box. This will download as a zip folder. Open the zip folder, and then drag and drop the contents on your desktop.  You want the contents of the zip folder, not the zip folder itself. Rename the folder you dropped to your desktop “adafruitBMP180”. Now you need to drag and drop this folder into your arduino library folder. To find your arduino library folder, in the arduino IDE window, look in file, preferences. A window should pop open, and it should show you where your arduino sketchbook folder is.  Drop your adafruitBMP180 folder into the Library folder of your arduino sketchbook folder. If this is not perfectly clear, watch the video above and you can watch me do it step-by-step. Once your adafruitBMP180 folder is in your arduino library folder, you are ready to start writing your code. You need to kill your arduino IDE window and reopen it for it to find your new library.

Now, to get this sensor to work, you just need a few lines of code. To begin with, you must load the Wire.h library and the Adafruit_BMP085.h library (again, do not worry that the library is named after an earlier model of this sensor).  After loading the libraries, you will need to create a sensor object. Then in void setup you will need to start the sensor, and then in void loop begin making measurements. The code below is a nice example of how to do this.

Now run the program and check your serial monitor and you should see measurements of temperature and pressure. Pressure in Pascals is a big number. To convert Pascals to inches of Mercury, or in Hg, which is what the weather sites usually report, take the Pascal reading, and divide by 3386.389. Then you should be in Inches of Mercury and you can check your reading against a weather report for your area. The numbers should be close.